Layout of operation theatre and common equipment in Veterinary

The layout of the operation theatre and common equipment in Veterinary

The layout of operation theatre

The surgical suite comprises of preparation room (surgeons / animals), operation room/theatre, and intensive care or recovery room.

1) Preparation room

Annexed to the operation room, there should be two preparation rooms i.e. one for patient’s preparation and another for surgeon's preparation.

Patient's preparation room

In this room preparation of the surgical site on the animal patients is done in the following steps:

> Tranquilizing/premedicating the animal

> Clipping of hair at intravenous site & surgical area

> Cleaning the area with soap & water

> Shaving the surgical site

> Scrubbing & disinfecting the surgical site & so on

When animal is fully prepared it is transferred to the operation theatre.


Surgeon's preparation room

surgeons perform following routine procedures before entering the operation theatre.

> Change from street clothes to clean clothes

> Wearing of cap & mask

> Scrubbing of hands

> Drying of hands with sterile towel.

2. Operation theatre

Large animal operation theatre

There size  should ideally be 20x25'. For large animal surgeries to be undertaken in lateral recumbency there should be stationary cum movable operation tables with a waterproof triple cloth. Besides, there should be a ruminotomy of Travis with a notch on the left side. Also, it should have a hernia table for the operation of calves & small ruminants.


Small animal operation theatre

Size of the operation theatre should be 12 feet x15 feet, &  should be fitted with adjustable tables.


General consideration

Room temperature of 21°C (70°F) & relative humidity (RH) of 50% must be maintained within the operating room should be under mid positive pressure so that when the surgery room is opened, air flows out of the room. There should be no fixed furniture except for the operating table, surgical trolley & washbasin, as fixtures trap much of dirt & dust. Wall fittings are preferred as they can be easily disinfected. The washbasin must be fitted with a foot or elbow control to the taps and outlets. There should be adequate light sources, particularly shadowless lamps. The room must be provided with power points for the use of heating appliances, electrical instruments, etc. foot-operated dustbin must be provided which should be emptied and disinfected after each period of work.

3. Contaminated surgery room

For prevention of spread of infection and cleaning and disinfecting of the surgical suite, a surgery room outside the sterile surgery area for operating on contaminated patients is most beneficial. It may also be used for emergency cases such as gastric torsion, which may cause cross-contamination of the surgical suite. Dental procedures may also be performed here.

4. Recovery/intensive care room

After a complete surgical maneuver patient is taken to recovery or intensive care unit (I.C.U.) for continuous monitoring till complete recovery. I.C.U.must be well equipped with all sorts of monitoring equipment's, drugs, antidotes, respiratory stimulants, I/V fluids, physiotherapy instruments, analgesics, and other emergency drugs.


The major equipment of operation theatre

The important equipment required for an operation theatre is

► Boyle's anesthetic apparatus with vaporizers and gas cylinders.

► Electro cardiogram/pulse oximeter.

► Cardiac defibrillator/resuscitation unit.

► Endotracheal tubing of assorted size.

► Laryngoscope with different sized blades.

► Artificial respirator/Ambu's rebreathing bag.

► Disposable syringes & drip set etc.

In addition, all sorts of anesthetics and emergency medicines must be readily accessible.

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By- Dr. Jitendra kumar sahu (B.V.Sc & A.H.)

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